Automatic Mode: Auto mode give your camera its best judgment to shutter speed, aperture, ISO white balance, focus and flash when taking a photo. It will give you good photos, but you should still select some modes yourself.
Portrait Mode: When using this mode, it will give you a large aperture so the depth of field will be shallow. Portrait is best used when you are trying to photograph one object.
Marco Mode: This mode lets you take close pictures of your object without physically moving closer. When using this mode try photographing parallel so most of your photo wont be out of focus.
Landscape Mode: This mode will set up a small aperture do the depth of field will be good and in focus. This is used when photographing wide scenes.
Sports Mode: This is uses when photographing moving objects. This increases the shutter speed which freezes the action without blurring the object.
Night Mode: This mode is used when shooting in low light situations and sets a longer shutter speed to capture details of the background. Would usually need a tripod for this mode, but you can also hand hold the camera if you purposely want the background to look blurry.
Movie Mode: This mode lets you take videos with sound. Its not the quality of a video camera but it will capture things you cant capture with a still photo.
Aperture Priority Mode (A or AV): This is a semi-automatic mode in which you choose the aperture and the camera chooses the other modes. This mode is useful when looking to control depth of field.
Shutter Priority Mode (S or TV): This mode lets you select your shutter speed, but the camera will choose the other settings. This is used when you want to capture moving objects.
Program Mode (P): This mode is like auto mode, but it gives you a little more control for some features.
Manual Mode: This mode lets you have full control of the camera. This lets you have flexibility to set up your camera to take shots that you want.